Informacion Util- Useful Information

Futuro y mas alla

Las ciudades privadas son el comienzo del neofeudalismo donde los ciudadanos existen para el placer y la conveniencia de los barones de la tierra. Si a los "propietarios" no les gustas, puedes ser expulsado sumariamente sin ningún recurso.

Caminaba por debajo de las torres de gran altura idénticas de Danga Bay, un nuevo desarrollo de uso mixto de 20,000 personas construido completamente en tierras recuperadas en Johor Bahru, en el sur de Malasia, tomando fotos con mi cámara.

 

Había estado escribiendo sobre nuevas ciudades y desarrollos como este en toda Asia durante muchos años, y hacer visitas informales donde podía sentir el lugar, charlar con compradores de viviendas y personas que manejan negocios locales, era parte de mi procedimiento operativo estándar.

Pero aquí sucedió algo que no había experimentado antes:

un agente de seguridad se me acercó y me dijeron severamente que no podía usar mi cámara; que las cámaras no estaban permitidas en Danga Bay.

Le pregunté:

“¿Entonces en un desarrollo donde se supone que viven 20,000 personas, a nadie se le permite tener una cámara?”

Dijo que eso era correcto.

Por supuesto, eso no era cierto, pero no había nada que pudiera hacer:

estaba en un pequeño desarrollo del tamaño de una ciudad que era 100% de propiedad privada y operado por el desarrollador chino Country Garden.

La palabra de la compañía era ley…

¿Que es una ciudad privada?

“Una ciudad privada es como un centro comercial gigante”, dice Sarah Moser, profesora asociada de geografía en la Universidad McGill que ha estudiado ampliamente el movimiento global de nuevas ciudades.

 

“Si a la gerencia no le gustas o la forma en que te vistes, teóricamente pueden expulsarte y no tienes ningún recurso para desafiar esto, ya que es ‘propiedad privada’.

 

No hay concejales electos a los que apelar y si te ven como un alborotador, podrías ser expulsado”.

Las ciudades privadas, generalmente comercializadas como “mejores, más baratas y más libres que los modelos estatales existentes” se han convertido en la nueva tendencia en el desarrollo urbano del siglo XXI.

 

Son desarrollos de uso mixto donde,

las personas viven, trabajan y juegan, presididas por un CEO en lugar de un alcalde, una empresa en lugar de un gobierno…

De alguna manera, las ciudades privadas son vistas como un tipo de atajo de “ganar-ganar / win-win”, ya que los gobiernos pueden construir sus nuevos desarrollos para ellos a través de capital privado en lugar de dólares de impuestos y aún tomar un recorte de las ganancias, mientras que las empresas privadas pueden obtener ganancias en cada etapa del proceso de urbanización.

 

Las ciudades privadas, como zonas económicas especiales, a menudo tienen sus propios conjuntos de reglas que a menudo son perpendiculares a las leyes de las naciones en las que se encuentran geográficamente.

 

Son esencialmente comodines legales, una franja de tierra comprada por una empresa privada que se puede ejecutar como esa compañía lo considere conveniente.

 

Son comodines donde no se aplican las convenciones del país en general, donde se pueden implementar y probar,

  • nuevas regulaciones laborales

  • códigos fiscales

  • leyes financieras

  • sistemas de registro de negocios y propiedades

  • modelos educativos…

Las ideas detrás de muchas ciudades privadas tienden a ser muy libertarias:

sacar al gobierno del camino y dejar que la gente prospere…

Según Sarah Moser, hoy en día se están desarrollando más de 15 nuevas ciudades privadas y docenas de nuevas áreas urbanas en asociaciones público-privadas en todo el mundo.

 

Songdo, una nueva ciudad de 130,000 personas propiedad y operada por Gale International y POSCO en Corea del Sur, es uno de los modelos dominantes de este movimiento.

Forest City, una nueva ciudad naciente de $ 100 mil millones y 700,000 personas que se está construyendo en tierras recuperadas justo en la costa de Danga Bay (Malasia) por el Country Garden de China es otra.

 

Al igual que Springfield, Australia, una ciudad privada que fue construida desde cero en 7,000 acres de arbustos por el 39º hombre más rico de Australia que ahora alberga a 40,000 residentes.

 

Google incluso recibió recientemente la aprobación para construir una ciudad privada “inteligente” en un suburbio de Toronto.

“Las ciudades privadas son atractivas para muchos gobiernos que desean un desarrollo urbano y económico instantáneo y creen que la subcontratación al sector privado es eficiente y lucrativa”, señala Moser.

 

“Las empresas de desarrollo inmobiliario y las empresas tecnológicas se sienten atraídas por los beneficios que se obtendrán en los proyectos de nuevas ciudades y los gobiernos de todo el mundo están dispuestos a ceder tierras, servicios públicos y control con la esperanza de atraer a Amazon o algún otro gigante tecnológico”.

Mark Lutter, director ejecutivo del Charter Cities Institute, tiene una visión más positiva de las ciudades privadas, alegando que podrían permitir la implementación de nuevas reformas que podrían albergar un entorno empresarial más competitivo y, en última instancia, impulsar las perspectivas económicas de una región.

“Al enfocarse en sitios nuevos donde no hay actividad y no hay grupos de intereses especiales, tiende a ser posible obtener un conjunto de reformas más profundo de lo que de otra manera sería posible”, explica.

 

“Eso puede preparar el escenario para esta nueva gobernanza que puede conducir al crecimiento a largo plazo”.

Matt Granfield ha visto que esto suceda en la ciudad privada de Springfield en Australia.

“La ventaja de ser una ciudad privada es que podemos tener una visión a largo plazo y construir la infraestructura y los servicios adecuados para los residentes y las empresas, en el lugar correcto, en el momento adecuado”, dice.

 

“Esto está en contraste con la mayoría de las ciudades no privadas que siempre están luchando para adaptar todo alrededor de las calles existentes”.

Lutter utilizó Singapur, Shenzhen, Hong Kong y Dubai como ejemplos del enfoque que las ciudades privadas deberían adoptar.

“Todos demostraron que es posible convertirse en una ciudad de clase mundial en dos o tres generaciones, a veces incluso menos”, señala.

 

“Esto se debió en parte a un entorno empresarial más competitivo. Creemos que este modelo puede replicarse en los mercados emergentes, principalmente en África y Asia “.

¿Cuáles son los derechos de las personas en las ciudades privadas?

Pero había algo acerca de ese agente de seguridad privado, que toma el lugar de la policía, en Danga Bay que me hizo comenzar a cuestionar cuáles son los derechos de un individuo en una ciudad privada.

 

Si bien las ciudades privadas seguramente se pueden administrar de manera justa, las corporaciones generalmente no están bien informadas sobre la administración pública adecuada, como el caso de Celebration, Florida, que lo muestra muy bien.

 

No existe un requisito para un proceso democrático en las ciudades privadas, en última instancia, lo que dice la compañía, y la principal vía para que las personas voten, es con los pies:

decidir si quieren vivir allí o no…

“Hay muchas ambigüedades en las ciudades privadas sobre los derechos de los residentes, las protecciones legales que tienen y el recurso legal que tienen si algo sale mal”, explica Moser.

 

“Los CEOs no son despedidos por fallar a los residentes sino por fallar a los accionistas. Cuando una ciudad es privada, la prioridad de la gestión es la ganancia, no las necesidades de los ciudadanos”.    

 

 

traducción e imagenes  de Biblioteca Pleyades

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8 comentarios sobre «Informacion Util- Useful Information»

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  8. Karissamx

    wowww que interesante.. Gracias por compartir.. saludos

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